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4                                   SHIPPING PRACTICE

Against the particulars of the packages on the tally cards,
are the measurements and weight by which freight is
charged. Any disputed weights may be checked at port of
delivery, and* if found to be incorrect, checking charges are
for account of carrier. If, however, the original weight or
measurement is found to be correct the charge for this
checking is for account of the person requiring the check.

As goods are tallied into the ship, so the tally cards are
sent to the office. These are divided into ports, each port
being controlled by a port clerk, whose duty is to check the
particulars on the bill of lading with those on the tally card.
When the shipment shown on a bill of lading is received on
board, the bill of lading is signed and the particulars are
placed on the ship's manifest. This manifest must contain
full particulars of marks, numbers, quantity, contents,
shipper, and consignee, with particulars required by the
Consular authorities of the country to which the goods
are being forwarded.

The freight account is made out and freight is chargeable
according to weight or measurement, or ad valorem value,
whichever may be the most remunerative to the carrier.
La addition to freight there may be charges for forwarding,
clearance, and sometimes a charge for primage.

Conferences of the different trades are organized whereby
all shipping companies trading in certain areas meet and
discuss matters of general interest, compile tarif s of rates
for specific goods, and generally control and protect the
interest of all members. In order to ensure that the shippers
by conference lines maintain their support in return for the
regular services provided, a primage cbar^ of varying
amounts up to 10 per cent is charged on the total freight.
This is retained by the shipping company for a period of
tiuĞ or six months, and is then returnable as rebate to the
siiipfjer, provided that during that period he has not for-
waitted goods to the same area by any vessel other than a
conference boat* Or, the Contract system is used, whereby
primage is dropped and the regular shipper gets a " contract
rate" which is lower than the rate charged to a shipper